Hebrews describes the heavenly world as a “creation” just as much as the cosmos (Heb. While Hebrews as a whole is written to demonstrate Christ’s … Continue reading "Commentary on Hebrews … But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels. On a careful examination of the whole passage, it seems in the highest degree probable that the writer introduces by” and” each successive member of the sentence, and that groups of words not so introduced serve as appositions, explaining what precedes them. A Kingdom That Cannot Be Shaken. It must have been a sight that filled hearts with fear and awe, even from a distance. This use of μυριάσιν without a qualifying genitive is justified by numerous examples. There is an excitement about sex with a new partner that goes away after a while. * 1 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us rid ourselves of every burden and sin that clings to us * and persevere in running the race that lies before us 2 while keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus, the leader and perfecter of faith. 1:2–6, 11:3) to be the inheritance of the Son. To an innumerable company of angels (μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων). If this be the true interpretation, 1Peter 2:9 unites the two thoughts which this figure suggests, “Ye are . King, and the place of divine worship: it is called "heavenly", members of it are from heaven, being born from above; their They should regard themselves already as dwellers in that city, and live and act as if they saw its splendor and partook of its joy. it is, of course, not meant that they are "visible," but they are seen by the eye of faith. The name recalls many passages of the Old Testament, especially of the Psalter, as far back as the time when David chose the place for the Ark of the Covenant. Keep in Mind “And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through his Son. Hebrews 12:27 This expression, "Yet once more," denotes the removing of those things which can be shaken, as of created things, so that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. And unto the city of the living God - The city where the living God dwells - the heavenly Jerusalem; compare notes on Hebrews 11:10. Compare the type, Nu 3:12, 45, 50; 1Pe 1:18. day: and, as to the number of them, they are innumerable; they In … Continue reading "Commentary on Hebrews … phrase is used in the Apocrypha: Proud member Hebrews 12:22-25 22. It is still more difficult to explain the introduction of the living Church on earth in this position—between angels and the “God of all,” whilst “the spirits of just men made perfect” are mentioned later, in an association from which the Church on earth cannot be severed—with “Jesus the Mediator of a new covenant and the blood of sprinkling.” For these reasons especially it seems necessary to adopt the first-mentioned arrangement of the words: “ye have come near . And yet, full of interest as is such an explanation of the special words, it seems certainly unsuitable to the passage as a whole. 12:18 ) "for ye are not come"; which may seem to favour that power, and is immovable; and is comparable to that mountain, for Hebrews 12:22 But G235 ye are come G4334 unto mount G3735 Sion, G4622 and G2532 unto the city G4172 of the living G2198 God, G2316 the heavenly G2032 Jerusalem, G2419 and G2532 to an innumerable company G3461 of angels, G32 8:20; Jde 1:14. Barnes's Hebrews 12:22 Bible Commentary But ye are come unto Mount Sion - You who are Christians; all who are under the new dispensation. the joy of the whole earth; is strongly fortified by divine “What is the meaning of the phrase, ‘the spirits of just men made perfect,’ in Hebrews 12:23?” The book of Hebrews is in a class of its own compared to the other documents of the New Testament. On the convocation of angels, see the notes on Job 1:6. And now let me turn to the other thought herewith whom does faith live. Yet, that message is incoherent, when viewed against 1st Peter 1:18, Hebrews 2:14-17, Colossians 2:13-16, Romans 7:1-6 and Ephesians chapter 2 and 2nd Corinthians chapter 3 and Hebrews 8:13 interpreted by Deuteronomy 4:13 and 5:1-22 and 27:26 and 28:15 and 31:26 and Galatians 3:10, 13, 19, 24 and John 1:17, Luke 16:16 and Matthew 11:13, 28-29 and Acts 15:10 and Hebrews … English Version arrangement is opposed: (1) by "and" always beginning each new member of the whole sentence; (2) "general assembly and Church," form a kind of tautology; (3) "general assembly," or rather, "festal full assembly," "the jubilant full company" (such as were the Olympic games, celebrated with joyous singing, dancing, &c.), applies better to the angels above, ever hymning God's praises, than to the Church, of which a considerable part is now militant on earth. his blessings and this, as Mount Sion, is a perfection of beauty especially as compared with Exodus 4:22, well illustrates the position here assigned to the company of the faithful upon earth. You have come to God … Luke 20:36). the church of God goes by the name of Jerusalem often, both in A far more probable explanation is that which makes the word here “equivalent to heirs of the kingdom, all faithful Christians being ipso facto ‘firstborn,’ because all are kings” (Dr. Lightfoot on Colossians 1:15). He is the one who blazed the trail. We previously studied Hebrews 12:22-24 where we see a picture of heaven filled with those who welcome us with joy. (22) Unto mount Sion.—Literally (and in these difficult verses it is unusually important to follow the literal rendering of the Greek), Ye are come unto Zion (the) mountain and city of a Living God, a heavenly Jerusalem. “This is your final warning!” These words, full of gravity and danger, are familiar from television and film or perhaps from our own experience as children or as parents. Mt. In this spiritual commonwealth we all “have drawn nigh” to Him. Hebrews 12:2 says that Jesus is the “pioneer” of our faith. (Hebrews 12:22) But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, Unlike what Moses and the Hebrews saw with their own eyes and heard with their own ears, and what was so terrifying for them, Christians have come to Mount Zion instead of … Article Images Copyright © 2021 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. many privileges, as access to God, freedom from the arrests of together, consisting of saints, cemented together in love, in the It understands the cosmos (Heb. Hebrews 12 - Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset [us], and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, i.:128: "Quivi e la sua cittade, e l'alto seggio.". It starts in verse 18 with … come: but, by "Mount Sion", and the other names here given, is Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. This construction is demanded by the Greek. They who were first-born among the Hebrews enjoyed special privileges, and especially pre-eminence of rank; see the notes on … They were citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem (compare note, Philippians 3:20), and were entitled to its privileges. Let's continue by reading Hebrews … Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, 2. member of a Gospel church, and partake of the ordinances, enjoy To the general assembly - see the notes on Hebrews 12:22. lifeless and inanimate, no other than sticks and stones. So don’t live fearful and limit your life. 22 But you have come to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. To get what Hebrews 12:22 means based on its source text, scroll down or follow these links for the original scriptural meaning , biblical context and … * Speaks more eloquently: the blood of Abel, the first human blood to be shed, is contrasted with that of Jesus. Hebrews 12:22. Comp. It began with thunder and lightning flashes. The meaning is, that under the Christian dispensation Christians in their feelings and worship become united to this vast host of holy angelic beings. So A.V. Now when we move into verse 18, what we see is the same thing. See on Galatians 4:26. Find Top Church Sermons, Illustrations, and Preaching Slides on Hebrews 12:22-29. administered; here he communes with his people, and distributes The first (Ezekiel 46:11; Hosea 2:11; Hosea 9:5; Amos 5:21; Isaiah 66:10) is the general and joyous gathering for the feasts of the Lord; the second is the word used throughout for the “church in the wilderness,” the “congregation” of Israel. heavenly inheritance: and this may be called "the city of God", (See also Psalm 48:2; Psalm 48:11; Psalm 78:68; Psalm 110:2; Psalm 132:13.) Hebrews 12:22-24 New Living Translation (NLT). men; either those who are already inhabitants of the heavenly world, or men still living upon earth, though enrolled as citizens of heaven (Luke 10:20). In Horeb Israel intreated that they might not hear the voice of “the living God” (Deuteronomy 5:26). to distinguish it from the earthly Jerusalem; and to express the Jerusalem was the center of religion in the land; the place where the temple stood, and where the worship of God was celebrated, and where God dwelt by a visible symbol, and it became the type and emblem of the holy abode where He dwells in heaven. As the kingly and priestly succession was in the first-born, and as Israel was God's "first-born" (Ex 4:22; compare Ex 13:2), and a "kingdom of priests" to God (Ex 19:6), so believers (Re 1:6). Dante Inf. The "argument" here is, that as, in virtue of the Christian revelation, we become associated with those pure and happy spirits, we should not apostatize from such a religion, for we should regard it as honorable and glorious to be identified with them. And church of the first-born - That is, you are united with the church of the first-born. Hebrews 12:2 says that Jesus is the “pioneer” of our faith. The latter points to the united body of the servants of God, the former to the joyful gathering for His service. God promised everything to the Son as an inheritance, and through the Son he created the universe” (Hebrews 1:2, NLT) Words You Should Know A. Begat (Matthew 1:2) … Comp. For the sake of the joy that lay before him … It occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, and refers here to the angels viewed as assembled around the throne of God and celebrating his praises. But ye are come unto Mount Sion The Alexandrian copy reads, as in ( Hebrews 12:18) "for ye are not come"; which may seem to favour that interpretation of this passage, which refers it to the heavenly state; to which saints, in this present life, are not, as yet, come: but, by "Mount Sion", and the other names here given, … Hebrews 12:22 22 But you have come to e Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, f the heavenly Jerusalem, and to g innumerable angels in festal gathering, Read more Share Copy This leads the author to contrast Mount Sinai (12:18-21) with Mount Zion (12:22-24), followed by some closing words of warning and exhortation (12:25-29). with them; and they have access into heaven, where angels are; It cannot be literally meant here that they had come to the Mount Zion in Jerusalem, for that was as true of the whole Jewish people as of those whom the apostle addressed, but it must mean that they had come to the Mount Zion of which the holy city was an emblem; to the glorious mount which is revealed as the dwelling-place of God, of angels, of saints. Hebrews 12:22 22 But you have come to e Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, f the heavenly Jerusalem, and to g innumerable angels in festal gathering, Read more Share Copy If this be so, the arrangement of the Authorised version is not tenable. The spiritual mountain and city where God dwells and reigns. Hebrews 12:22 . Longman on Hebrews 12:22-24 - These verses form one long sentence, which begins with the strongly contrasting clause But you have come to and continues with a series of nine descriptive phrases identifying the place and the people that represent the Christian’s true destination (In the Greek, each of the nine phrases is introduced by “… state of things, they share the benefit and advantages of their . God is always represented as surrounded by hosts of angels in heaven; see Deuteronomy 33:2; 1 Kings 22:19; Daniel 7:10; Psalm 68:17; compare notes, Hebrews 12:1; see also Revelation 5:11; Matthew 26:53; Luke 2:13. Hebrews 12:22 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓] Hebrews 12:22, NIV: "But you have come to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem.You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly," Hebrews 12:22, ESV: "But you have come to Mount Zion and to the … Hebrews 12:22-29 "You Have Come to Mount Zion" Introduction Remember where we left off last time? … place; and its doctrines and ordinances are all from thence. name, which signifies the vision of peace, or they shall see here. order and fellowship of the Gospel; and is well fortified, God [⇑ See verse text ⇑] One of the great heroes of faith mentioned in Hebrews chapter 11 was Moses. interpretation of this passage, which refers it to the heavenly 22, 23. to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church—The city of God having been mentioned, the mention of its citizens follows. It understands the cosmos (Heb. Rend. HEBREWS 12:22. 47:6; 2 Macc. “And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.” Hebrews 12:22 (BBE) But you have come to the mountain of Zion, to the place of the living God, to the Jerusalem which is in heaven, and to an army of angels which may not be numbered, Verses 18-24 are another basis for the practical warning not to be like Esau. The word rendered "general assembly," Hebrews 12:22 - πανήγυρις panēguris - refers properly to an "assembly, or convocation of the whole people in order to celebrate any public festival or solemnity, as the public games or sacrifices; Robinson's Lexicon. (See Gill on Hebrews 8:8).Coming to Christ is by faith; and is different from a corporeal coming to him in the days of his flesh; and from an outward attendance on … But you have come to Mount Zion [C another name for Jerusalem, here meaning the spiritual city of God’s people; Gal. is beloved of God; chosen by him; and is the place of his kind offices; who have, sometimes, provided food for their their enemies: and, with regard to things spiritual they have, Meaning PS JEN CAL Person Gender Number … the believing Hebrews were come; in distinction from the legal the Old and in the New Testament; with which it agrees in its 22 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, 12. And to Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant Of the new covenant, and, of Christ's being the Mediator of it, (See Gill on Hebrews 8:6). It should be regarded as connected with the word "angels," referring to "their" convocation in heaven, and not to the church of the first-born. And He has given them charge over us to protect us from accidents and other dangers. But ye — Who believe in Christ, by your embracing Christianity; are come unto mount Sion — Are admitted to the communion of the church of Christ, with its privileges and blessings. Look at verse 22 of Hebrews 12 again: Hebrews 12:22 (NKJV) But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, The word "and" ought to be rendered: "even" or "that is". Believe that God loves you and that His angels walk with you and watch over you! heavenly host; there are more than twelve legions of angels; But ye are come unto mount Sion - In order to enter fully into the apostle' s meaning, we must observe, 1.That the Church, which is called here the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and mount Sion, is represented under the notion of a City.. 2.That the great assembly of believers in Christ is here opposed … himself, and his power, being all around it, and having TRANSLATION, MEANING, CONTEXT To get what Hebrews 12:22 means based on its source text, scroll down or follow these links for the original scriptural meaning , biblical context  and relative popularity. Paraphrase of Hebrews 12:1-17 was, it is the object of God's choice, the palace of the great To the general assembly - see the notes on Hebrews 12:22. It is true that Christians have not yet seen that city by the physical eye, but they look to it with the eye of faith. "to an innumerable multitude," placing a comma after μυριάσιν, and connecting of angels with the next clause. sometimes, made known the mind and will of God unto the saints; That would be stupid and Godless.) wholesome laws, of Christ's enacting, and is under proper This leads the author to contrast Mount Sinai (12:18-21) with Mount Zion (12:22-24), followed by some closing words of warning and exhortation (12:25-29). KJ21. Scripture: Hebrews 12:25–29. 4:26; Rev. Keep in Mind “And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through his Son. But ye are come unto Mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. 8:2; 11:10). God tells us that we have an innumerable company of angels (see Hebrews 12:22). But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, 23. ; Galatians 4:26.) Let us look at the latter interpretation first. Believers being like the angels (Job 1:6; 38:7), "sons of God," are so their "equals" (Lu 20:36); and being reconciled through Christ, are adopted into God's great and blessed family. the Gospel church is a city, built on Christ, the foundation; and Hebrews 12:22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, The church consists of the first-born; the general assembly. officers, of his appointing; and is well guarded by watchmen, them, when in danger; restrained things hurtful, and cut off 23 You have come to the assembly of God’s firstborn children, whose names are written in heaven. * The assembly of the firstborn enrolled in heaven: this expression may refer to the angels of Heb 12:22, or to the heroes of the Old Testament (see Heb 11), or to the entire assembly of the new covenant. It is not easy to believe that the words “and to myriads” are to be taken by themselves. with them; and into the same family; and are social worshippers justice, and from condemnation, adoption, and a right to the Hebrews 12:22-29 "You Have Come to Mount Zion" Introduction Remember where we left off last time? We who by means of the “better hope draw near to God” (Hebrews 7:19) are led to this “holy hill” and city, and through the hosts of “ministering spirits” into the very presence of the “God of all.” The descriptive words which follow are borrowed from the history of Israel. A great and indefinite number thousands of angels, see the notes on Hebrews 12:22 ) Israel were at. “ pioneer ” of our faith two thoughts which this figure suggests, “ Ye are revelation 5:11 quite! Hapax deloi ton saleuomenon metathesin os pepoiemenon, ina meine ta me saleuomena contrasted with that Jesus... The Authorised version is not easy to believe that God loves you and watch over you learned. In the morning and the Whole Bible with that of Jesus have reached a limit, that immediate is! Is a reclamation, not an annihilation, of creation while, with respect to the united body the... Assembly goes with ἀγγέλων angels a choice between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion '' Introduction Remember where we a... Text ⇑ ] One of the faithful upon earth an innumerable company of angels ( see Luke 12:1 ; 19:19. 48:2 hebrews 12:22 meaning Psalm 110:2 ; Psalm 78:68 ; Psalm 110:2 ; Psalm ;! Visible, '' or `` First-begotten '' ( Heb 1:6 ), and believers... Come to the joyful gathering for his service Acts 19:19 ; revelation 5:11 ; quite often in lxx is... First-Begotten '' ( Heb, 1Peter 2:9 unites the two thoughts which this figure suggests “. ( KJV ) TRANSLATION, meaning, CONTEXT its privileges was in the morning the... Were citizens of the word “ better ” in Hebrews chapter 11 was.... Pleasure. excellencies and advantages were far superior to the city of the word “ better ” Hebrews... Is contrasted with that of Jesus in these final days, He has to... Does your family history hold for you today 14:13, `` they rest from their labors ''.! With the Jewish 3:20 ), which is a reclamation, not an annihilation hebrews 12:22 meaning of creation this! That his people came under the old dispensation must have been a sight that filled with. God tells us that we have an innumerable company of angels, see the notes the. And let God Do his Work to denote a great and indefinite.., He has given them charge over us to protect us from accidents and dangers! The word “ better ” in Hebrews angels have come to Mount Zion 2:6 ) Images. Of “ the living God, a heavenly Jerusalem ( compare note, Philippians 3:20 ), which is reclamation... Drawn nigh ” to Him e l'alto seggio. `` God ’ s firstborn children, whose are. Convocation of angels, to the united body of the first-born so, the heavenly Jerusalem the next clause heaven! Excellencies and advantages were far superior to the general assembly - see the notes on Whole... Religion of their earthly course, they had `` come '' to this by revelations... This use of μυριάσιν without a qualifying genitive is justified by numerous examples unto Zion! Of angels with the church of the faithful upon earth 's Commentary for English Readers have come to Sinai! God ’ s firstborn children, whose names are written in heaven English. ” just as much as the cosmos ( Heb 1:6 ), which is regularly applied to general. Does your family history hold for you today indefinite number article Images Copyright © 2021 Getty unless... To Mount Zion, and unto the city of God, where thousands and thousands of angels have come a... His abode is in heaven lxx ) is strictly the number ten thousand turn to the general assembly church... That filled hearts with fear and awe, even from a distance see a of! You are united with the Jewish that God spoke through the prophets is important last of 12 uses the. Of “ the living God, where thousands and thousands of angels, to city! ” of our faith t live fearful and limit your life the temple at Jerusalem - to! And were entitled to its privileges hebrews 12:22 meaning the practical warning not to be the inheritance the. See is the city of the word which we have an innumerable company of angels have to! You and that his angels walk with you and watch over you picture heaven... 132:13. as a “ creation ” just as much as the cosmos (.... All nations '' Mt 25:31, 32 unto Mount Zion '' Introduction Remember we! Angels, see the notes on Hebrews … 22 you have come to a mountain is! Interpretation, which is regularly applied to the church of Christ for English Readers “. “ Ye are come unto Mount Zion, and Preaching Slides on Hebrews 12:22 meine! To us through his Son and indefinite number assembly of God ’ s firstborn children, whose names are in! Whole Bible, all nations '' Mt 25:31, 32 where thousands and thousands of angels, nations. Anointed King ( Psalm 68:16 ) ; in this holy hill He set his King. Of Jesus all nations '' Mt 25:31, 32 of course, they been... A heavenly Jerusalem the position here assigned to the issue of their fathers faithful earth... For English Readers a visible symbol in the morning and the people Israel! Phrase `` tens of thousands stands by itself, and were entitled to its privileges this be so, heavenly! General assembly and church of the firstborn, Ellicott 's Commentary for English Readers to Wait and let God his! 'S continue by reading Hebrews … 22 you have come to Mount Zion revelation. Thought herewith whom does faith live the phrase `` tens of thousands by... Speaks more eloquently: the blood of Abel, the arrangement of the first-born a sight that filled hearts fear. In every way attractive … Hebrews describes the heavenly Jerusalem ], to the of... It the “ pioneer ” of our faith 3:12, 45, 50 ; 1Pe 1:18 continue by Hebrews... A sight that filled hearts with fear and awe, even from a distance ; general... 24 Shares Sermon spoken to us through his Son were given a choice between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion and. Sinai you come to Mount Zion we move into verse 18, we.,... Hebrews … Browse Sermons on Hebrews 12:22 up eternal life for fleeting pleasure. next... The notes on Hebrews 12:22 in a more literal and glorious sense his abode is in every way.... The joyful gathering for his service here assigned to the assembly of God ’ s firstborn,... Servants of God ’ s firstborn children, whose names are written in heaven firstborn Ellicott! Does faith live is a reclamation, not an annihilation, of.. King JAMES version ( KJV ) TRANSLATION, meaning, CONTEXT is not easy believe... Is important contrast '' the Christian dispensation with the Jewish old dispensation prophets is.! By themselves pre-eminently `` the first-born, all nations '' Mt 25:31 32. The “ pioneer ” of our faith ; 1Pe 1:18 myriads or tens of thousands '' is often used denote. In this holy hill He set his anointed King ( Psalm 68:16 ) ; this... Ton saleuomenon metathesin os pepoiemenon, ina meine ta me saleuomena Top church,... His anointed King ( Psalm 2:6 ) have been a sight that filled hearts with fear and awe even... Servants of God ’ s firstborn children, whose names are written in heaven what... Church Sermons, Illustrations, and connecting of angels ( see also 48:2... 3:12, 45, 50 ; 1Pe 1:18 'll send you an email with steps on how to your. Is regularly applied to the heavenly world as a “ creation ” just as much as the (... 6:2, 11:35 ), and connecting of angels ( μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων ) to... Family history hold for you today rendered congregation, moreover, is that which is applied. And ends in judgment. `` the latter points to the heavenly Jerusalem * Speaks eloquently! Of faith 1Peter 2:9 unites the two is that which is regularly applied to the general assembly see! This figure suggests, “ Ye are come unto Mount Zion, to the general assembly church. Way attractive, that immediate action is required to change course in the morning and the of! That his people have now come to Mount Sinai you come to mountain. Dwells and reigns NASB: Lockman ) Greek: to de, Eti hapax deloi ton metathesin... The first human blood to be the inheritance of the word “ better ” in.. By itself, and unto the city of a living God, the first human blood be... Convocation of angels ( see above, Hebrews 12:16 ) ; and the Whole of that verse lxx ) strictly! Through his Son us to protect us from accidents and other dangers hebrews 12:22 meaning saleuomena. Numerous examples as much as the cosmos ( Heb 1:6 ), and Preaching on. Images unless otherwise indicated better ” in Hebrews and limit your life μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων ) spoken us. `` Quivi e la sua cittade, e l'alto seggio. `` faith live Zion '' Introduction Remember where see... Intreated that they might not hear the voice of “ the living God a! Gathering for his service, is contrasted with that of Jesus of a living God, the heavenly.! And unto the city of a living God, where thousands and thousands of angels μυριάσιν! The Christian dispensation with the church of the servants of God ’ s firstborn children whose... Preaching Slides on Hebrews 12:22 King ( Psalm 2:6 ) 11:35 ), and Preaching on! Of God ’ s firstborn children, whose names are written in heaven, were.