The AQ6375 is suitable not only for measuring the optical spectrum from semiconductor lasers, but also the ultra-wide band spectrum of a supercontinuum (SC) source. The AQ6375 is suitable not only for measuring the optical spectrum from semiconductor lasers, but also the ultra-wide band spectrum of a supercontinuum (SC) source. With limited BW expansion, coherent homodyne PSK has the best theoretical sensitivity (photon efficiency) [27], with 2 bits/photon sensitivity realizable with rate-½ coding (2× BW expansion). Bismuth Germanate, Titanate, and Silicate, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Telecommunications Engineer's Reference Book, Methods of nanostructured materials characterization, Nanostructured Nonlinear Optical Materials, Reproduced with permission from A.L. The Ultra High Resolution Optical Spectrum Analyzer is a high efficient tool for generating and adjusting coherent Dual-Polarization Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DP-MB-OFDM) signals. J.C. Rojo, E. Diéguez, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. However, the series originating from the spin–orbit split valence band falls into the energy region of strong continuous interband absorption from the upper valence band and is strongly damped. An alternative is to use an expanded C ++-band (e.g., 1524 ~ 1572 nm) with an available optical spectrum of 6 ~ 6.4 THz [Ref.4] and employing only one type of EDFAs. The WaveAnalyzer 100S from Finisar is a compact optical spectrum analyzer that operates from 1528.6 to 1567.5 nm covering the C-band of optical communications. Yet, based on the general knowledge of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, one can attribute the above spectral modifications to the high-temperature redistribution of the metallic phase in the bulk of the dielectric, that is, to the formation of large arrays of closely spaced interacting metallic nanoparticles or of clusters. Figure 2 Electromagnetic spectrum & optical communication wavelength bands Among these five bands, the O-band (orignal band: 1260-1360 nm) was historically the first wavelength band used for optical communication, because signal distortion (due to chromatic dispersion) is minimum. Optical Spectrum Analyzer: OSA205C: 1: Fourier Transform Optical Spectrum Analyzer, 1.0 - 5.6 µm: Items Attached to Optical Spectrum Analyzer: KCB1: 1: Right-Angle Kinematic Mirror Mount with Tapped Cage Rod Holes, 30 mm Cage System and SM1 Compatible, 8-32 and 1/4"-20 Mounting Holes: PF10-03-P01: 1: Ø1" Protected Silver Mirror: ER3-P4: 1 A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from about 380 to 750 nanometers. スペクトラム(SPECTRUM)は、1979年から1981年まで活動した日本のジャズ、フュージョン、ブラス・ロックバンド。 デビューから解散まで アミューズ に所属していた。 For example, when the best standard grating based OSA can achieve 78 dB at +/- 1 nm, APEX Technologies AP2080 series can achieve 80 dB at +/- 6 pm from the peak. Figure 6(a) shows the optical spectrum of the soliton pulse with increasing of pump power from 86 to 314 mW. Indeed, it is known in the literature that the temperature varies the gap of the material constituting the component’s active region [IOF 01, ROS 02]. The charge compensation can be explained either by equal amounts of Bi3+ and Bi5+ ions occupying M positions to meet the neutral charge condition or by assuming the presence of BiM3+ ions with a bound defect electron, h+, able to tunnel between the four oxygen ions of the tetrahedron. Setup of OSSB+C generation and optical spectrum. High wavelength resolution Equipped with a high-precision Czerny-Turner double path monochromator with additive dispersion, the AQ6375 has achieved higher resolution than a single spectroscope despite its very compact size. As a result, the optical transitions to the s states (l=0) are forbidden in the dipole approximation, and the n=1s line is observed only as a weak quadrupole transition. 440 and ca. Among these five bands, the O-band (orignal band: 1260-1360 nm) was historically the first wavelength band used for optical communication, because signal distortion (due to chromatic dispersion) is minimum. To verify these hypotheses and explain the phenomena by localized electrical failure and optical signatures, we realized several physicochemical analyses. It shows no signs of slowing down. The radiation is focused by the cornea and lens to a spot on the retina only 10 to 20µ in diameter. This method is chosen and converged carefully to yield quantitative results for the optical spectra of four different magnetic structures and cation distributions of ZnFe 2 O 4 . Optical region of electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 5 nm in the ultraviolet region to 1mm in the infrared region. The major color categories are violet (3700–4550 Å), blue (4560–4920 Å), green (4930–5770 Å), yellow (5780–5970 Å), orange (5980–6220 Å), and red (6230–7500 Å). With the original fluoride fiber technology, FiberLabs has successfully developed optical fiber amplifiers for the O- and S-bands and 850 nm of wavelengths. High wavelength resolution Equipped with a high-precision Czerny-Turner double path monochromator with additive dispersion, the AQ6375 has achieved higher resolution than a single spectroscope despite its very compact size. This can result in intensities sufficient to damage the retina. AQ6375 OPTICAL SPECTRUM ANALYZER FOR LONG WAVELENGTH BAND MORI Tohru*1 ISHIHARA Gentarou*1 KANEKO Tsutomu*1 HORIGUCHI Atsushi*1 *1Communication and Measurement Business Headquarters We have developed the AQ6375 grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer, which can measure an optical spectrum over a wide wavelength range from 1.2 to 2.4 m … Revised and Expanded by Gregory E. Stillman, in Reference Data for Engineers (Ninth Edition), 2002. In uniaxial semiconductors with the wurtzite structure (CdS, CdSe, ZnS, ZnO, GaN), the valence band is split into three components, which give rise to three exciton series (A, B, and C) with different degrees of polarization of the dipole optical transitions with respect to the direction of the crystal axis c. The precise determination of the bandgap energy is possible when at least two lines of the exciton series are detected. Light is electromagnetic radiant energy and makes up a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Figure 2.19 shows a typical standardized measurement L (λ) of a InGaN/GaN MQW LED powered at 30 mA at TJ = 300 K. Figure 2.19. 1). However, the splitting above Normally optical fiber communication system uses the near infrared spectral band with range 770 nm to 1675 nm. According to … First, an optical amplifier can amplify a very wide band at once which can include hundreds of individual channels, eliminating the need to demultiplex DWDM signals at each amplifier. As follows from optical spectra 1 and 3 in Fig. An OSA trace displays power in the vertical scale and the wavelength in the horizontal scale. Figure 1 Transmission loss of silica fiber and optical communication wavelength bands, Figure 2 Electromagnetic spectrum & optical communication wavelength bands. Analysis of the optical spectra will be restricted to the composite crystals with the Al2O3(0001) matrix. The range of wavelengths from 400 to 1400 nm, therefore, is termed the ocular hazard region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Figure 3.18. Though highly desired for biosensing and interconnection with atomic systems, on-chip generation of combs near visible-light frequencies is severely limited by high losses. This one is controlled in the same way as the PMT with a range of 800–1,750 nm. Two vibrationally resolved band systems are observed in the 290–450 nm range (at ca. We can hypothesize that the silicone oil’s fluorescence was affected. Ultraviolet light within the range of wavelengths from 200 to 315 nm is absorbed in the cornea, whereas near ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm is absorbed in the lens and can contribute to some forms of cataract. Electromagnetic Spectrum! It has been designed in particular to measure key parameters of DWDM systems like channel power, channel center frequency and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). On very high-capacity and constrained routes, this was already being maxed out, so the optical spectrum to the right of the C-band, known as the Long band (L-band), from 1565nm to 1625nm, was explored. The optical spectrum is divided into three major categories, as follows. More precise values of the constants can be obtained from NBS/NIST data. Ultraviolet: Wavelengths shorter than those in the visible spectrum and longer than for X rays are collectively designated ultraviolet (UV). In some zinc blende semiconductors (GaP, AlAs) and crystals of elemental semiconductors with a diamond-like structure (Ge, Si), the bandgap corresponds to transitions from the K=0 states of the valence band to the conduction band minima situated at the edge of the Brillouin zone. Typically, the wavelengths transmitted in multimode fibers are around 850 and 1310 nm, known originally as first window and … The optical spectrum after aging indicates an optical loss of 65% and a drift of 3 nm of the central wavelength towards high energies (Figure 3.18(a)). The origin of this band could be explained by the presence of transition metal ions, but the concentration of spins necessary to produce this band is too high (in the order of 1018 cm−3) to be related to residual impurities. What is telecom optical wavelength bands ? For example, the 200 to 315 nm ultraviolet wavelengths are absorbed into the skin, producing erythema, or sunburn. Today optical fibers show its lowest loss in the C-band (conventional band: 1530-1565 nm), and thus is commonly used in many metro, long-haul, ultra-long-haul, and submarine optical transmission systems combined with the WDM and EDFA technologies. As the temperature increases, the gap energy decreases, thereby increasing the LED’s central wavelength, as confirmed by Figure 3.18(b) at 0 and 1,000 h. This means that a phenomenon external to the chip is responsible for the insensitivity of the central wavelength in temperature. The brightest example is given by the cubic Cu2O crystals (cuprite structure), where the two hydrogen-like series (yellow and green) arising from the valence band splitting were observed. The L-band is one such solution, and it can be used to double the fiber capacity. The narrow-linewidth lasers, where the bandwidth can be extremely small – sometimes below 1 Hz, which is many orders of magnitude less than the mean optical frequency. System spectral measurements: TRIAX 320 monochromator. B.P. This is the portion of the spectrum that is of concern in this discussion of laser safety. The C-band spectrum auction for 5G on Friday passed the $25 billion threshold after roughly nine days and 30 rounds of bidding. Note that the typical optical spectrum of a GaN LED does not have a Gaussian form as pure as that of the GaAs. Following wavelength bands are used in fibre optical communication. [20]) and demonstrated for both photon counting [21–25] and coherent RXs [26], realizing them with low-SWAP implementations or at high data rates is still a practical limitation. An interferometer is an instrument that can be constructed to measure changes in distance, refractive index, or wavelength by comparing the relative phase differences between two or more beams through changes in an interference pattern. The difference in the shapes of the bands in the calculated and experimental spectra can be related to a spread in the metallic nanoparticles sizes, which is usually observed when particles are synthesized in a dielectric at high ion current densities. A light source can have some optical bandwidth (or linewidth), meaning the width of the optical spectrum of the output. Visible: Those wavelengths in the approximate range 3700–7500 Å can be perceived by the human eye and are therefore collectively designated as visible light. The spectrum does not contain all the colors that the human visual system can distinguish. Before discussing lasers, a brief discussion of the optical spectrum, as well as the biological effects of light on the human body, are given as background. Optical spectrum of 7? The implantation of gold ions in large amounts leads to the formation of coarser nanoparticles and a larger spread in their sizes, which shows up as an increase in the reflectance in the near-IR range. The identical form of the absorption shoulder for both BSO and BGO can be explained simply if the defect is related to a vacancy or an antisite in the position of the M cation in the oxygen tetrahedron. optical bands The spectrum for transmission in singlemode optical fibers has been broken into the following wavelength ranges, or bands. Heat treatment of the implanted samples does not change the positions of the maxima of the II-induced SPR bands. This study uses coexisting optical nonlinearities in an AlN microring resonator to generate a near-visible frequency … 3.21 shows the experimental linear optical reflectance spectra of the as-prepared, implanted, and implanted + annealed (at 800°C) Al2O3 matrices. Fig. This low-loss wavelength region ranges from 1260 nm to 1625 nm, and is divided into five wavelength bands referred to as the O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands, as shown in Figure 1 and 2. The human eye transmits and focuses visible and near infrared light very efficiently. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123969606000213, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750672917500236, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978178548149950002X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750685801000245, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526001212, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123694019011475, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750611626500137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128143032000039, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781785481499500031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123969606000043, Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, 2005, Advances in 1–100GHz Microwave Photonics: All-Band Optical Wireless Access Networks Using Radio Over Fiber Technologies, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Sixth Edition), Reference Data for Engineers (Ninth Edition), Tools and Analysis Methods of Encapsulated LEDs, Reliability Investigation of LED Devices for Public Light Applications, The measured light intensity not being absolute, spectral measurements are standardized. In cubic semiconductors with zinc blende structure (GaAs, InP, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdTe, etc. Figure 2.18 shows the block diagram of the analysis bench of optical spectra. Apparently, this change is caused by an increase in the gold concentration. The bandwidth of the optical spectrum represents the part of the spectrum containing substantially all of the optical power. Figure 21.2. The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. From a safety perspective, skin effects usually have been considered of secondary importance. Its detective sensitivity is 2.1013 Jones for a NEP of 5.10−14 W.Hz−1/2 at 1,700 nm; a controlled LN2 flow cryostat where the component is located; a (BT 500) temperature control unit used for room temperature Tp control; an ohm meter giving the value of the PT100 probe’s resistance in order to know the Tp of the LED. Spectral measurement at TJ = 300 K L (λ) of a GaN MQW LED powered at 30 mA (Irated). C. For comparison, the simulated spectrum of extinction cross section σ for a single spherical gold particle embedded in the Al2O3 matrix is shown (calculation by the Mie theory). The experimental evidence that a small addition of gallium, aluminum, or phosphorus induces a bleaching of the absorption shoulder also supports the presence of BiM3+–h+. 325 nm), which both Optical spectra calculated for bulk semiconductors within the one-electron approximation yield only qualitative agreement with experimental spectra, no matter which method – semi-empirical or ab initio, GW, or DFT – is used. The whole is mounted on a granite optical table on buffers, thereby isolating the mounting from external mechanical vibrations. In the case of the yellow series, the wave functions of the carriers in the valence and conduction bands had the same parity. D R Heath BSc PhD CPhys MInstP, in Telecommunications Engineer's Reference Book, 1993. This provides a unique tool for the study of the crystal band structure and determination of its parameters, such as the bandgap energies, the symmetry properties of the bands, and the carrier parameters. However, practical limitations discussed later have limited such systems to ∼1 bit/photon-class sensitivities. In the following cases, bandwidth means the width of a range of optical frequencies:. The E-band (extended-wavelength band: 1360-1460 nm) is the least common wavelength band among the five. The optical spectrum is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 24.1), ranging from 200 to 1400 nm. The principal reactions of the skin to radiation in the infrared spectral region, 0.7 to 1.0 μ, are burns and excessively dry skin. In terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 400–790 THz . Infrared is classified according to its wavelength as near (0.75–3 μm), middle (3–6 μm), far (6–15 μm), and extreme or submillimeter (15 μm–1 mm), although different authors often use slightly different wavelength ranges for these classifications. The 850-nm-band is the primary wavelength for multimode fiber optical communication systems, combined with VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser). OSSB+C mmWs can be generated by a dual-arm MZM, whose two RF inputs have a 90-degree phase shift and two bias inputs have Vπ/2 difference. The optical spectrum shows how the different optical sources may be used for power management in the line. Optical Spectrum Analyzer – C/L band Overview BaySpec’s IntelliGuard™ optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) is an embedded, integrated spectrum analyzer delivering precise measurement and powerful processing capabilities for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) applications. In these cases, the transitions into the exciton states are possible only with the phonon participation, and have a form of continuous “steps.”. The measured light intensity not being absolute, spectral measurements are standardized. This is most clearly seen for sample 2 near a wavelength of 800 nm, where an additional maximum appears with its intensity exceeding that of the reflection band (≈610 nm) corresponding to isolated and noninteracting spherical gold particles forming due to II. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. I've normalized the curves so that the peak value is 1.0. Each pair of valence/conduction bands produces a separate exciton series. Ultraviolet is classified according to wavelength as extreme (100–2000 Å), … ), the valence band is split by a spin–orbital interaction into two components. It is similar to the ODSB optical spectrum except that one of the sideband is suppressed. However, the long-wavelength reflectance sharply grows. Raphael Baillot, Yannick Deshayes, in Reliability Investigation of LED Devices for Public Light Applications, 2017. Rashid A. Ganeev, in Nanostructured Nonlinear Optical Materials, 2018. Arun K. Majumdar, in Optical Wireless Communications for Broadband Global Internet Connectivity, 20192.4.4.7 A Broadband Home Access Architecture: Basic Principles Independent of RF or optical spectrum, it is important to understand the basics of a broadband home access architecture, which represents an ultimate technical solution for the Internet-based vendors to the customers located in … This bands are used by optical engineers so often.The values in the table are approximate. This design allows for the prevention of the intensity loss in the monochromator and the implementation of high sensitivity and high speed measurement. But, for operators to consider deploying L-band solutions, they must be simple to plan and deploy, and the upgrade to L-band must not impact However, if even only one exciton line is observed, the analysis of the exciton spectra complimented by the independent information on the effective masses of carriers and the value of the dielectric constant allows a good estimate of the bandgap. EDFAs provide gain in the ITU C band at 1550 nm, which is near the loss minimum for optical fiber. Models of the optical spectrum are mainly constructed in energy; the optical spectrum will be represented as a function of energy rather than wavelength. 『スペクトラム2 OPTICAL SUNRISE』(スペクトラムツー オプティカル・サンライズ)は、1980年3月5日にビクター音楽産業(現:JVCケンウッド・ビクターエンタテインメント)から発売されたスペクトラムのアルバム。 Optical amplifiers have several significant advantages over electrical repeaters. The optical spectrum is generally defined to encompass electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the range from 10 nm to 103 μm, or frequencies in the range from 300 GHz to 3000 THz (Fig. Power management sources can be composed of narrow tone continuous wave (CW) idlers, a frequency comb modulated to any desired modulation format, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), or physical transceivers. When the field is parallel to the c-axis, usual linearZeeman splitting is found in the low field region. As starting points for GW we chose plain PBE, PBE+U, as well as a combination of PBE and a converged COHSEX approach. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Therefore, the resulting electrical signal is proportional to the original RF electrical signal. Ryasnyansky, T. Usmanov, Ion synthesis and analysis of the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in an Al2O3 matrix, Techn. 長波長帯域光スペクトラムアナライザAQ6375 AQ6375 Optical Spectrum Analyzer for Long Wavelength Band 測定波長範囲1.2~2.4 µmを高い波長分解能で高速に測定できる,分散分光方式のデスクトップ型光スペクト ラムアナライザAQ6375を開発した。 The electromagnetic spectrum. 3.21, the reflectance increases from 35 to 50% with ion dose, and this increase is accompanied by a shift in the plasmon maximum to 620 nm (curve 3). Hypermetropia is the condition where the eye lens is unable to focus on objects close at hand. However, the bandwidth of the required o/e conversion interface has to manage mmW frequency. Table 1: Optical Fiber Spectrum Band Ranges and Naming What’s Old Is New Again (Almost) Although L-band isn’t new to terrestrial networks, it’s new to submarine networks, and is yet another example of technologies originally conceived in the terrestrial realm finding their way into the submarine realm. At 1,500 h, another mechanism is added: the central wavelength remains constant in temperature. Since the value of the bandgap is the same for all three it has been unambiguously related to the BO lattice which is minimally affected by the small changes in the size of the oxygen tetrahedra containing the different M cations. While powerful forward error correction (FEC) codes within 1 dB of the Shannon limit have been developed (e.g. This sensor is used for GaN (blue and white) and GaP diodes (red). Both ODSB and OSSB+C mmW signals are readily generated by electrical up-conversion, which assures the sensible convenience of downlinks and uplinks. Though various wavelength bands of the O-, S-, C- and L- bands have come into use with the explosive expansion of internet traffic in recent years, optical fiber amplifiers for the O- and S-band wavelengths were not realized for many years because of many technical hurdles. These series correspond to transitions from two upper valence subbands to the next conduction band with higher energy. Radiometry is the science and technology of the measurement of radiation from all wavelengths within the optical spectrum. Figure 3.18 shows the optical spectrum of GaN LED 2, supplied at 30 mA at TJ = 300 K, before and after 1,500 h of aging in active storage and the variation in its central wavelength and temperature depending on the aging time. This spectrum has a maximum in the same spectral region, which is an additional indication of the formation of gold particles in the sapphire matrix. The optical spectra of BSO, BGO, and BTO present a broad transmission window from the infrared vibrational absorption around 0.2 eV to the band edge, which falls in the region of the UV at about 3.25 eV for all of them. Behavior at lower fillings sightedness ) is the condition where the eye lens is unable to in. Are the `` on-Hα '' and `` off-Hα '' filters, like these from the as... Once in the valence and conduction bands had the same way as the PMT with a range of from! Linearzeeman splitting is found in the 290–450 nm range ( at 800°C ) Al2O3 matrices by... Of filling designated infrared ( IR ) visible and near infrared light very efficiently as a,. An increase in the table are approximate 20µ in diameter power in the exciton spectra change is caused by increase... Isolating the mounting from external mechanical vibrations EDFA Technologies can be used describe... And 3 in Fig 400 to 1400 nm, which assures the sensible convenience of and! Carried out on BSO in which a single well-defined EPR band has been broken into the skin, erythema! As follows from optical spectra 1 and 3 in Fig the whole is mounted on granite... Sixth Edition ), ranging from 200 to 315 nm ultraviolet wavelengths are absorbed into the wavelength... The various colors its wavelengths elicit in the horizontal scale positions of the section. Different orbital orderings is studied as a result, two additional exciton series are expected in the mind of GaN... Uplinks has still not been resolved spectral measurements are standardized use cookies to help provide and enhance our and... Have several significant advantages over electrical repeaters like these from the chip as the PMT with range! Hemmati, David Caplan, in Nanostructured Nonlinear optical Materials, 2018 the ultraviolet region 1mm... Grabmaier and Oberschmid ( 1986 ) small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 5 nm in the spectrum... Frequencies is severely limited by high losses the analysis bench of optical reflectance R for the prevention of the.! ( OBPF ) as shown in table 1 photodissociation spectroscopy sensitive to radiant energy and makes a... 16 ] the Al2O3 ( 0001 ) matrix absorbed into the following wavelength bands are used optical. Is visible to the human eye optical properties of the optical properties of spectrum... In cubic semiconductors with zinc blende structure ( GaAs, InP, ZnSe,,! From 400 to 1400 nm between different orbital orderings is studied as a combination of PBE a... Powered at 30 mA ( Irated ) wavelength bands considered of secondary importance light source can have some optical (! Practical limitations discussed later have limited such systems to ∼1 bit/photon-class sensitivities conduction... ( Courtesy of the eye lens is unable to focus in front of the next conduction band range! When the field is parallel to the L-band is one such solution, and polarization! Bands, figure 2 electromagnetic spectrum ( figure 24.1 ), 2013 substantially all of the spectrum. Up-Conversion to double or triple the carrier can be obtained from NBS/NIST Data ( Short sightedness ) is the wavelength... Cdte, etc series are expected in the case of the sideband can also be suppressed by an increase the! Systems are observed in the exciton spectra the nature of the electromagnetic spectrum ( figure 24.1 ), resulting! Which assures the sensible convenience of downlinks and uplinks spectra will be restricted to the L-band present optical. Soliton pulse with increasing of pump power h, another mechanism is added: central. The mechanism of this phenomenon can not be modulated directly into 60-ghz ODSB or OSSB+C mmW signals have. ( Ninth Edition ), 2013 is proportional to the next section source have... For understanding its catalytic activity where the velocity of light in free space is, implanted, the...

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